Faecal Sludge Management

Faecal sludge management (FSM) entails all activities for the adequate storage, collection, transport, treatment, and safe end use or disposal of faecal sludge (FS) within non-sewered sanitation systems such as pit latrines and septic tanks. Faecal sludge, which is raw or partially digested slurry or semisolid, is a result of combinations of excreta and blackwater, with or without greywater.

The principal aim of FSM is to ensure that untreated FS is deposited, contained, and removed from the community hygienically and safely, treated, and reused or disposed of safely. It is this premise that the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.2 draws the focus on safe human excreta management along the entire sanitation value chain (SVC).

Under our faecal sludge management solutions, we undertake the design and construction of faecal sludge treatment plants (FSTPs), as well as provision of services across the entire sanitation value chain (SVC) i.e., safe containment, transport, treatment, and reuse/disposal. Our FSM facilities aim at resource recovery i.e., conversion to biogas and briquettes to meet energy needs, as well as sludge cakes used in agriculture for soil conditioning (Organic fertilisers).

We offer the following services in regards to faecal sludge management (FSM):

  • We design and construct faecal sludge treatment facilities, to treat faecal sludge from septic tanks, pit latrines, and other onsite sanitation systems. Our facilities enable resource recovery i.e., briquettes, which reduces reliance on charcoal that is environmentally disastrous, as well as burning the methane gas generated to obtain electricity.
  • We undertake design and construction of constructed wetlands (artificial wetlands), sewage lagoons, and waste stabilisation ponds for human wastes for small-town centres, and institutions such as schools.
  • We undertake the construction of bio digester septic tanks. These decompose the waste on-site hence require no emptying. Additionally, our bio digesters generate biogas for energy needs.
  • We offer cesspool emptier and gulping services to Clients with filled up septic tanks (septic tank emptying services) and pit latrines (pit latrine emptying) respectively.

We offer cesspool and gulper services. A gulper is a hand-pump specially designed for sludge (e.g., for the emptying of pit latrines, septic tanks, aqua privies, anaerobic baffled reactors etc.). The pump works on the same concept as a water pump: the handle is pumped, the liquid (sludge) rises up through the bottom of the pump and is forced out of a tap (sludge spout).

Sanitation Infrastructure Facilities

Under our sanitation, hygiene, and public health interventions, we offer services for safe disposal of human excreta. Human excreta must be properly disposed of, to ensure a safe, healthy, and liveable environment! Proper disposal of human excreta prevents pollution of the environment, air, and water resources. Safe disposal necessitates the construction of well designed, and sited physical infrastructures, that minimise impact of the faecal matter on groundwater resources.

We undertake the construction of sewered (waterborne toilets) and onsite sanitation facilities, including but not limited to the following components:

  • Waterborne/flush toilet facilities.
  • Pour flush toilets (SATO pans).
  • Lined/drainable pit latrines, complete with menstrual hygiene management (MHM) facilities.
  • Waste incinerators and placenta pits.
  • Septic tanks, including high quality, high volume HDPE septic tanks.
  • Mobile toilets.
  • Sanitation platforms (Sanplats) for doom shaped slab toilets.
  • Transfer stations.
  • Bio digester septic tanks.
  • Hands free hand washing stations and WASHaLOTs.
  • Ecosan toilets.
  • Inclusive (accessible) toilet facilities with grab/hand rails, non-slip floors, emergency alarm cords, height adjustable changing bench etc. We also supply portable inclusive toilets, for mobility challenged persons such as people with disabilities (PWDs), elderly people (senior citizens) that are frail and with unsteady gait, and other physically challenged people with special needs.
  • We undertake design and construction of institutional sanitation facilities and development of sanitation safety plans (SSPs).
Sanitation safety planning.

Sanitation Safety Planning (SSP) is a step-by-step risk-based approach to assist in the implementation of local level risk assessment and management for the sanitation service chain, from containment, conveyance, treatment, and end use or disposal.

SSP supports the implementation of the WHO Guidelines on Sanitation and Health and the WHO Guidelines for Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta, and Greywater. The SSP process coordinates stakeholders along the sanitation chain and prioritises improvements and system monitoring based on health risk.

Bio Digester Septic Tanks

Bio digester septic tanks are the new gold standard in wastewater management, and are being widely adopted in preference to conventional septic tanks. Bio-digesters are used as an alternative to conventional septic tanks, because they offer the following added benefits:

  • They generate biogas, thus a source of clean renewable energy.
  • They eliminate dependence on external logistics (Emptying), as the wastewater is treated on-site.
  • They are easy to maintain.
  • They have reduced costs on emptying and maintenance.
  • They have an extended lifespan.
  • They decompose up to 99.9% of human waste, which is converted into reusable water and methane gas. This is in comparison to conventional septic tanks that decompose only 30% and 70% stays in the septic tank. This is made possible by the anaerobic microbial inoculum filled in the bio tank.

At Hydro Concepts (U) Ltd, we have specialist knowledge and unrivalled expertise in the design and construction of all sizes of bio digester septic tanks for homes, schools, hotels, and other institutional settings.

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