Pipe water supply systems i.e., solar piped water systems and gravity flow schemes comprise of water harvesting/abstraction, treatment, and distribution for such uses as domestic consumption, animal use, industrial use, and for irrigation-delivery of additional required water for proper plant growth, at all times.
We focus on achieving both water and energy efficiency by undertaking optimal design of piped water supply systems using proven design principles and criteria with the aid of technological packages suited for the purpose at hand. In the same spirit, our implementation plans focus on delivering quality workmanship.
In undertaking design of solar piped water supply systems, our pipeline design studies take into detailed consideration of delivery capacity required, working pressure, required surge protection, air release and vacuum, allowable loss of head, pipe grade, location, soil conditions, trench bedding, depth of cover, pressure testing characteristics of water, undertaking of bathymetric studies, geotechnical studies, topographic surveys, undertaking hydrologic analyses, undertaking of water distribution simulations using software such as EPANET or WATERGEMS, and working with AutoCAD and GIS software to generate technical drawings/images and construction materials selection and testing.
Our team thereafter undertakes financial analysis using such techniques as net present value, dynamic prime cost and rate of return of designed systems to assess their viability as well as set out operational parameters. This process is thereafter used to guide the design of tailor-made sound business models and plans for each piped water supply system designed.
We offer and implement a diversity of technical solutions in water supply, including but not limited to:
- Feasibility study, detailed engineering design, and construction of piped water supply systems.
- Rehabilitation of gravity flow schemes and solar powered piped water supply systems.
- Construction and rehabilitation of protected springs. Springs are formed when groundwater flows laterally to intersect the land surface and is discharged. Springs form where solution cavities, fractures, or perched water tables intersect the ground surface.
- Undertaking hydrogeological surveys, siting, and drilling of boreholes and production wells. We also undertake test pumping, permitting, motorization, and water level sensor installations for boreholes.
- Rehabilitation and decontamination of ageing wells.
- Borehole cleaning and fishing.
- Water quality testing, analysis, and monitoring.
- Active leakage detection on distribution pipes, water audits, and NRW/water loss management.
- Installation and maintenance of water property and water quality instrumentation.
- Water infrastructure rehabilitation and optimal replacement.
- Installation of reservoir tanks (elevated tank towers) and various types of tank stands.
- Undertaking high billing investigations, meter tampering, faulty meters, etc.
- Laying of pipe extension mains (water lines), as well as pipe relocations and pipeline rehabilitation.
- Installation of fixtures as fire hydrants, service valves, air valves, butterfly valves, gate valves, etc.
- Undertaking of electromechanical works at pump houses and high lift pumping stations.
- Undertaking pipeline repair and rehabilitations using state-of-the-art rehabilitation techniques. This is necessary to reduce the amount of leakage on ageing and deteriorating pipes, and to stabilize water supply. We also prepare emergency response plans for pipe failures.
- Pump service and maintenance and pump efficiency audits.
- Rehabilitation of underwater lines as well as the use of trenchless pipe laying and rehabilitation techniques (Rehabilitation of pipelines with no dig technologies).
- Assessment of non-functional water facilities and assessment of the magnitude of damage.
- Pipeline replacement programs and pipe relocations.
- Pressure testing for water transmission mains and for water supply systems for high-rise buildings.
- Construction of sand dams for surface water harvesting, earth dams, water pans, etc.
- Construction of water kiosks, public stand posts (PSPs), and distribution water lines.
- Construction of master balancing reservoirs (MBRs) and high lift pump stations.
We also supply the following products and accessories related to water supply:
- Supply of surface and submersible water pumps (Both electric and solar powered).
- Supply of water quality testing kits and laboratory reagents.
- Supply of borehole and hand pump spare parts, and drilling accessories.
- Supply of solar water pumping equipment and accessories i.e., solar PV modules/solar panels, solar charge controllers, inverters, batteries, wind turbine mini grids, solar mini grids, armoured cables, solar street lighting solutions, solar panel mounts, MPPT regulators, etc.
- Supply of water distribution system fittings e.g., gate valves, check valves, pressure reducing valves, hot and cold water meters, mechanical and ultrasonic flow meters, irrigation meters, leak detectors, water detectors, etc.
- Supply of smart metering solutions e.g., prepaid water meters, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and automated meter reading (AMR). These industry leading technologies enable leak detection, remote shutoff, and automated billing.
- Power back systems as generator sets (Automatic standby generators, both petrol and diesel engines).
- Supply and installation of all types of electro mechanical components.
- Supply and installation of wind turbines.
- Supply of mine dewatering pumps, centrifugal pumps, water pressure booster pumps, water pumps, sewage pumps, etc.
- Supply of all types of water conveyance pipes i.e., HDPE pipes, PPR pipes, PE pipes, uPVC pipes, G.I pipes, cast iron pipes, boiler steel pipes, etc.
- Supply of geophones, ground penetrating radars, and acoustic leakage detectors.
- Supply of inline hydrophones, transient monitors, and acoustical correlators.
- Supply of vortex flow meters, ultrasonic flow meters, etc.
Prepaid smart water meters.
These are a revolutionary intervention, for rental, and industrial applications to enable utilities, estates, property owners, and town water boards to avoid water bill arrears. These smart systems are preloaded with tokens purchased using mobile money or online payment systems. The meter remotely cuts off water supply when the tokens are depleted, and restores water supply once recharged. This minimises the need for door-to-door meter reading and water bill collection, greatly reducing management costs. They enable early tracking and identification of meter tampering through daily consumption uploads, identifying leakages through monitoring inactive user hours, etc.
Borehole Drilling and Production Well Drilling
A borehole is a narrow shaft bored in the ground for the purpose of extracting groundwater. Boreholes are cased, gravel packed and equipped with a pump and wellhead protection. The borehole penetrates the earth’s surface to underground stores of water held in permeable rock known as aquifers. The water is pumped to a supply point on the surface. The pumping is done either with a hand pump or motorised pump. Boreholes are used to extract water, usually from depths between 20m and 200m.
Numerous drilling techniques exist, which depend on water table depth, cost, site accessibility/terrain, soil types, type of geological formation, etc. These can be classified in four main drilling types i.e., hand auger, percussion, sludging and jetting.
We understand that variable geologic conditions are often encountered. We undertake careful lithologic, geophysical, water quality and aquifer performance data collection programs, thus able to produce appropriate well designs. In cases of complex basements and hard rock formations, our technical experts deploy the most appropriate drilling technology to have the work accomplished. We have a proven track record in our ability to determine in the field the most suitable design that provides a sand-free, high performing aquifer well and that provides a productive aquifer well with exceptional water quality and minimal sand and silt content.
Our borehole drilling services include but are not limited to undertaking hydrogeological surveys and borehole siting, borehole drilling, borehole drilling supervision, well development, test pumping, water quality analysis, borehole motorization, borehole rehabilitation, borehole flashing, borehole camera inspection, borehole cleaning and fishing, etc. We also supply borehole and India Mark II handpump spare parts such as pump heads, U2 water tanks, pedestals, U2 cylinders, G.I pipes, connecting rods, U2 plunger rods, U2 cylinder casings, pump head casings, inspection covers, deep well handles, etc. We supply and install high quality long lasting deep well handpumps for both India Mark II and Afridev handpumps.
We implement numerous innovative solutions to develop and enhance the performance of newly constructed wells and to rehabilitate existing and ageing wells. By combining an unequalled knowledge and stewardship of your water resource needs with a commitment to the sustainability of the client-service provider relationship, Hydro Concepts (U) Ltd ensures that our solutions are in your best interest.
Rationale for a hydrogeological survey.
If boreholes are not properly sited, designed, and constructed, there exists risk of hitting a dry well, while in successful cases, supplies may not be consistent/maintained, and investments will have been wasted.
A hydrological survey will enable us know the water table, aquifer characters i.e., flow paths and recharge zones in order to know how much water can be safely extracted, depth of water table and quantities available, residence time of the water in your aquifers, type of aquifer i.e., confined or unconfined, perched or consolidated. This is why consultation is key prior to embarking on your drilling project, and why you need an expert to guide you during drilling.
The objective of a hydrogeological survey is to give some understanding of what is going on under the ground; the potential depth-to, location and type of aquifers, direction of groundwater flow and the relative position to possible sources of contamination.
Groundwater exploration is a cumulative process of gathering data on the presence of groundwater in an area and can be described as various levels of investigations:
Level 1: Inventory of existing data (Geological Data, Topographical data, Hydrological and Climatic Data Analysis, Analysis of Existing Well Data, etc.).
Level 2: Remote sensing data interpretation (Satellite Imagery, Aerial Photography, Airborne geophysical data, etc.).
Level 3: Hydrogeological fieldwork Level (Geomorphological Analysis, Water Points Inventory and Monitoring, Hydro-Climatic Monitoring, etc.).
Level 4: Geophysical survey level (Electrical Resistivity, Seismic Refraction, Electromagnetic Profiling (EM) and VLF Profiling).
Level 5: Exploratory drilling (Hand Drilling, Machine Drilling, Geological Logging, Geophysical Logging, Test Pumping, Water Sampling, etc..).
Our hydrogeologists provide technical advisory to all aspects of water resources hydrogeology and hydrology: borehole design and pumping test analysis, groundwater flow modelling, and water quality assessment.
Rationale for borehole and production well monitoring using remote monitoring terminals.
The decline in groundwater levels around pumping wells near a surface water body is always likely, whenever proactive ongoing monitoring of abstraction is absent to create gradients that capture some of the ambient groundwater flow that would have, without pumping, discharged as base flow to the surface water.
At sufficiently large pumping rates, the declines induce flow out of the body of surface water into the aquifer, a process known as induced infiltration or induced recharge. The sum of these two effects leads to streamflow depletion. In the long run, this groundwater mining leads to land subsidence, sinkholes, and other water quality and environmental disasters that can be difficult to remediate.
A spring is where underground water flows to the surface. Springs may occur when the water table meets the ground surface; these are called gravity springs. Other times water is forced to the surface because the water carrying layer meets an impermeable layer (gravity overflow springs or contact springs). In some cases, groundwater is held under pressure and springs come to the surface because of a natural break in the rock, or because a shallow excavation is made (artesian springs).
Springs can make very good water supplies provided that they are properly protected against contamination. If springs are found above the village, they can feed a pipe system for providing water close to homes. When a spring is at the same, or lower, level than the village, it can still be protected, but greater care is needed and it is unlikely that water will flow through the pipe system by gravity. The first step in deciding whether a spring should be protected is to determine whether it provides enough water for the expected number of users.
A storage tank may be needed so that water flowing from the spring at night can be stored and used during the day, instead of running to waste.
To protect a spring, a retaining wall or box is constructed around the “eye” of the spring, where the water emerges from the ground. The area behind the wall or box is backfilled with sand and stones to filter water as it enters the box and help remove contamination in the groundwater. The backfill area is capped with clay and grass is planted on top.
The whole area is fenced and a ditch dug above the spring to prevent surface water from eroding the backfill area and contaminating the spring. The collection area is covered with concrete and sufficient space left beneath the outlet pipe for people to place jerry cans and buckets.
A lined drain is constructed to carry spilled water away from the spring. The water could be used for laundry, to feed an animal-watering trough or for irrigating a garden. In other situations, spilled water may be drained to a soak-away pit or to the nearest surface water body. To prevent mosquito breeding, water from the spring should not be allowed to form pools.
The constructed spring well comprises of: internal terrace to collect water from sources, spring box to store and reduce speed of water, an apron to provide space for inspection and renovation of the spring well, screens to remove solid elements from water, brick wing wall to raise water level, non-rusting outlets to direct clean water from the spring well to containers, rabbles to prevent soil erosion, and an external terrace to direct untapped water to safe disposal.
Hydro Concepts (U) Ltd is active in designing and implementation of water supply systems, undertaking specialised aspects of water supply of:
Water loss control and management where we undertake;
Water Meter Management
- Meter selection, testing, calibration, and auditing.
- Installation and management of prepaid water meters.
- Sub-metering in case of multiple users on one master meter i.e., for rentals and plazas including development and management of their billing systems.
Water Asset Management
Our technical experts carefully study your water supply system with regards to water supply pressures, distribution pipe specifications, water quality and all system components, and guide you on the right infrastructure to use, with an overall aim of driving operational efficiency. We thus provide you with project lifecycle solutions to maximise asset values, from feasibility studies through to decommissioning. This enables you to optimise operations and maximise plant asset values throughout the lifecycle of the facilities.
We also undertake detailed mapping of water asset infrastructure, setting up of GIS databases, surveying and updating of water asset maps for utilities. We undertake Condition-Driven Asset Management (CDAM), a best practice that entails a tiered approach to condition assessment incorporating an asset management desktop model, pipeline inspection, and permanent monitoring (for critical assets), thus saving utilities millions in unnecessary pipe replacements.
The amount of inspection is driven by the pipeline criticality. This approach mitigates failure risks while optimising the use of precious capital. We deploy non-invasive, acoustic condition assessment as a key element of our CDAM programs. Currently, this testing is intrusive, expensive, and hard to conduct since it requires the shutdown of the distribution system, an obtrusive inspection and testing rudimentary technique.
This augments master planning, and determination of the structural integrity of pipe segments and accurately pinpointing leaks, all without breaking ground or disrupting service. Our asset condition assessments on various facilities as water treatment plants, wastewater treatment plants, and lift station inspections detail the physical condition, useful life, and estimated replacement cost of each asset.
We create living master plans based on meaningful capacity analyses, regulatory analyses, condition assessments, and asset inventories that are the foundation of capital improvement program (CIP) planning and asset management. We support our Clients to evaluate, rehabilitate, and design improvements to their gravity sewer, force main, and pumping systems to get the most out of existing assets and optimise their systems.
Our services include hydraulic modelling; sewer system evaluation surveys; condition assessments; and in addition to the planning, design, and permitting of improvements. Our utility master planning experts understand the technical and financial challenges of providing sustainable, cost-effective infrastructure. Our wastewater services include integrated master planning, asset management, capital improvement planning, financial planning, and rate studies. We provide utilities with unique insights into the health of the distribution system and ageing infrastructure.
Pressure Management Systems
In water supply systems experiencing high pressures, we undertake the process of identification of high-pressure zones, size, install and offer sustainable pressure management solutions aimed at ensuring reduction in occurrence of bursts, reduction in flow rates of leakages and aversion of new leakages and bursts from occurring. Pressure management is recognized as the foundation for optimal management of piped water supply and distribution systems. It is effective in reducing the frequency of new breaks and the flow rates of those breaks and background leakages that cannot be avoided.
Monitoring pressure in distribution systems.
Pressure management in pipe networks is fundamental to providing safe drinking water. The loss of pressure can allow groundwater to contaminate the distribution system through pathogen entry. Fluctuations in pressure can affect the physical integrity of pipes. Surges in pressure have been known to create additional leaks, main breaks and/or dramatically reduce infrastructure life. Pressure management can also save money. Accurate pressure data allows system operators to reduce leakage volumes, energy costs, system maintenance costs, customer complaints, and water quality problems. We provide simple and cost-effective technologies to continuously monitor pressure in potable water distribution systems. Our pressure sensor, typically installed one per DMA, reports at user-defined intervals via cellular service, helping to identify potential infrastructure failures related to pressure fluctuations that would have led to significant repair costs.
Pressure monitoring is especially useful in district metering areas to:
- Perform flow and pressure calculations to show leaks.
- Compute water balance and determine minimum night flow (Water balance and water budgets).
- Identify where pressure can be lowered to reduce leaks.
- Control DMA gate valves.
Automatic pressure monitoring on an AMI network helps utilities reduce the damage caused by leaks and lowers the chances of burst pipes by allowing operators to quickly reduce pressure when necessary
Monitoring pressure to prevent leaks.
Another way to identify leaks and keep a water system operating optimally is through pressure monitoring. Pressure sensors located in the water distribution network can identify anomalies that could indicate leaks or the potential for leaks. Having pressure sensors monitored automatically on a fixed-network increases their effectiveness and efficiency in making pressure adjustments, which helps to minimise occurrences for leakages and pipe bursts.
Smart Underground Leakage Detection (NRW Equipment)
We have high precision instruments that can be used to detect and locate leakages on underground water transmission pipes. Our smart water leak detectors are highly accurate and sensitive, and as such suited for water leak surveying on plastic pipes. Our equipment digitally locates the leaks on underground pipes, thus enabling utilities to reduce NRW. These systems can detect leaks in pipes buried up to a depth of 1 metre, and are highly sensitive, reliable, accurate, and fast. We deploy accurate, fast, smart, and professional water leak detectors for water leak surveying on plastic pipes like HDPE, PVC, and PE pipes.
Water Safety Plans
In 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced Water Safety Plans (WSPs) as an instrument for identification, prevention, and management of contamination risks to water supply systems. The WSP approach is based on the principles and steps of the “Multiple-Barrier” concept for prevention of contamination to water sources and the “Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)” concept, adopted from food safety management systems. The WSPs are intended to ensure continuous provision of safe water, free from any contamination, for all levels and types of community water supply systems. WSPs have been implemented, mainly by water utilities, in all regions of the world, voluntarily or by regulation.
The WSP approach is systematic, comprehensive, cost-effective and appropriate in a wide range of circumstances and thus is an important tool for small community water supplies.
Water Safety Plans are widely recognized as the international best practice for guiding reliable and effective management of drinking water supplies to safeguard public health. Recent advancements in water safety planning include:
- Water safety planning for climate resilience.
- Monitoring and control of drinking water quality and supply systems.
- Risk based approaches in drinking water regulation.
- Emergency planning and preparation.
- New and emerging risks.
- Risk evaluation and management.
- Water reclamation and reuse in the context of water and sanitation safety planning.
- Water safety in small systems.
- Water safety plan auditing and implementation.
As such, it is a mandatory requirement by the WHO, that water systems meant for communities, health centres, schools MUST incorporate water safety plans. This water quality monitoring requirement believes that “The most effective means of consistently ensuring the safety of a drinking-water supply is through the use of a comprehensive risk assessment and risk management approaches that encompass all steps in water supply from catchment to consumer”. This approach was based on scientific studies that showed that traditional water quality monitoring often produces results which are too little and too late.
- Too little because so few samples are taken compared to the amount of water produced.
- Too late because usually by the time the results are available, the water has been supplied and may have been consumed.
As such, all sections of the water supply plant from water abstraction, treatment, distribution, to the consumer, MUST be critically analysed to foresee likely risks that may compromise the quality of water at each point. These are then graded in terms of magnitude and likelihood of occurrence, and respective mitigation measures that can be implemented to maintain the quality of water, and monitoring guidelines as per HACCP.
In order to guarantee sustainability of the quality of water, it is important to draw up a water safety plan, strictly monitor its implementation, and routinely review and update it.
A water safety plan entails compilation of a robust assessment of the likely risks that can compromise the microbial, chemical and physical quality of water, resultantly likely to cause public health concerns from catchment to the consumer chain.
Because water supply systems vary greatly from each other in terms of characteristics such as catchment source, types and condition of assets, size, among other aspects, it is important that a specific water safety plan is prepared for each water supply system.
We offer technical support to Clients in development of tailor-made water safety plans, to guarantee the sustainability of the quality of water. We enable you to identify, prioritise risks, and ensure appropriate control measures are in place to reduce these risks to an acceptable level.
The “risk-based” approach used in WSP broadens the significance of water quality monitoring by placing it as a component of a “Framework for Drinking-Water Safety”. This framework has a number of components. These include:
- Setting up health-based water quality targets based on health concerns.
- Undertaking system assessments to determine the safety of the water supply.
- Establishing operational monitoring of control measures in the water supply.
- Developing management plans documenting the system assessment and monitoring.
Our full-line of innovative solutions and services actively diagnose, monitor, and control the delivery of safe, clean drinking water to consumers and businesses.
Energy Efficiency in Water Supply Systems Where We Undertake
We undertake energy audits and offer advisory services.
Do you plan to construct a swimming pool for your home, hotel, institution, recreation facility, or leisure park? Do you need it indoor, or outdoor, public, or in your backyard?
We are experts in designing and delivering for you a modern state of the art swimming pool that exceeds your expectations, at unbeatable prices.
We design and construct all sizes of swimming pools, from Olympic size swimming pools. We also add special high-tech and beautiful features that give you thrilling and amazing experiences, with a relaxing touch, such as sheer waterfalls, water fountains, whirlpools, jet massage, or thermal water pool (hydro massage). All these elegant relaxing elements give you exclusive bathing and fun experiences! We construct all these facilities, including spas, jacuzzis, steam baths and sauna. Additionally, we provide swimming pool maintenance products, accessories, and services aimed at maintaining water quality, combatting algal growth, correcting iron levels, and reduction of limescale in your swimming pool. These include swimming pool filters, pumps, pond aerators, and water purification chemicals.
Water Treatment Services (Raw Water and Process Water Treatment Plants)
Access to clean, fresh water is fundamental to life and well-being. It is therefore of fundamental importance that water meant for drinking and process water be treated to acceptable water quality standards, through various water filtration and purification technologies/systems to help remove salt, chlorine, bacteria, and other contaminants as well as odours, unpleasant tastes, and hardness from water.
We offer a number of water treatment technologies, ranging from simple to high-end treatment, filtration, and purification systems, suited for homes, institutions, and bottling plants. Our modern, high-quality technologies range from bulk treatment for communal water points, as well as filtration systems for homes. These include but not limited to:
- Water filters.
- Filter cartridges.
- Ceramic and UV water filters, reverse osmosis (RO) systems and point of use filtration technologies.
- Disinfection and chlorination systems.
- Sand filters, ceramic filters, membrane filters, activated charcoal, biosand filters, UF systems, ion exchange resins, etc.
- High end purification systems.
- Chlorine dispensers, chlorine tablets, aquatabs, chlorine powder.
- Ozonation systems (Ozone generators).
- Air stripping systems (To help remove iron).
- Point of use solar ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems.
- Slow and rapid sand filters (Bio sand filters).
- Desalination systems for salty water/seawater and brackish water.
- Addressing water quality issues i.e., colour, hardness, odour, taste, and turbidity. This calls for water softening among other treatment options.
- Design and construction of raw water treatment plants and chlorine dosing systems.
- Water quality sampling, testing and analysis
We supply the following water treatment and quality related items and equipment:
- Water softeners (To address hard water).
- Supply of water ATMs (automatic water vending machines). These RO enabled systems supply purified water to communities, institutions, and busy commercial areas. They dispatch filtered water by accepting coins and card swipe, enabling the public access to highly purified drinking water 24/7.
- Reverse osmosis filters and filter cartridges.
- Portable water quality testing kits.
- Water quality testing reagents.
- Water quality meters i.e., pH, turbidity, TDS, E-coli meters for cost effective water quality testing.
- Water disinfection reagents i.e., sodium hypochlorite, chlorine, etc.
- Desalination systems, UF membranes for process water, ozone generators, etc.
- Ion exchange, water softeners, activated carbon, membrane filters, etc.
- Water bottling, beverage, and process water equipment and machinery i.e., injection moulding (water bottle moulding) machines, beer bottling filling machines, automated carbonated beverage filling machines, labelling machines, blowing machines, shrink wrapping machines, batch coding machines, automatic beverage bottle capping machines, etc.
Our team of experienced water treatment specialists guide you with system design and product selection needed to efficiently treat your raw or process water. Our experts provide professional consultation and support at every step of the process of the water treatment system design and implementation.
Subsurface Utility Locators (Subsurface Utility Engineering)
Everyday construction needs a detailed mapping of underground or buried utilities and support infrastructure i.e., gas lines, internet lines, water lines, power lines, etc. Depth and location are critical in new structure designs. Our subsurface engineering avails a comprehensive mapping of all buried structures. Our distinctive high-end equipment is very effective in locating plastic conduits, concrete storm and sanitary sewers.
Thus its ability to respond to both metallic and non-metallic features gives it a unique capability for pipe and cable locating, for subsurface infrastructure made of plastic, asbestos, metallic, and concrete structures. With our equipment, we are able to identify buried pipe material with minimal disruption. Both plastic and metallic pipes can be easily located for repair of leaks or any other works without necessitating excavation or disruption to the flow or quality of water. The current approach of identifying underground pipes is labour intensive, disruptive to customers, time consuming, and expensive.
At Hydro Concepts (U) Ltd, we rapidly and cost effectively identify the location of the pipes without disrupting the flow, taste, appearance, or odour of customer’s water. Our approach does not require the water supply to be shut off or any section of the pipework, nor require excavation to access the surface of the pipe. It accurately locates various pipe materials as plastic, lead, galvanised iron, copper, and concrete storm and sanitary sewers. Our sensors are able to determine the presence as well as confirm the absence of any of the pipe types in the customer supply network, and they relay the results in real time, on site. That is quite interesting!